How strong is solidarity across the European Union, and how might we measure it? With whom do Europeans tend to feel solidarity, and why? Does solidarity mean different things to different people? All of these questions are crucial to the long-term prospects of European integration, and all are resistant to easy measurement. We use large corpora of texts about Europe, about countries in Europe, and about regions within a country to try to home in on the meaning and implications of solidarity in these different contexts.
Illustration: Fabien Vienne ‘Cooperation Intereuropeenne’